Stroking by humans is beneficial to the human-animal relationship and improves welfare in many species that express intraspecific allogrooming, but very few studies have looked at species like sheep that do not express such contact except around parturition. This study investigated the way lambs perceive regular human tactile contact using behavioral and physiological responses. Twenty-four lambs were reared and bucket-fed in groups of four. All were stroked daily by their familiar caregiver. Heart rate and heart rate variability were recorded and analyzed by 2-min slots over the same interval based on three measures: mean heart rate value HR , root mean square of successive differences RMSSD and standard deviation of all intervals measured between consecutive sinus beats SDNN.
Non-reproductive sexual behavior in animals - Wikipedia
Diarrhoea is a common disease in lambs and kids- , especially in the newborn and suckling young animals. The acute disease in the newborn is characterised by progressive dehydration and rapid death, sometimes in as few as12 hours. In the subacute form, diarrhoea may persist for several days and result in emaciation and stunted growth. Several pathogens are associated with neonatal diarrhoea. The most common are the bacterium Escherichia coli, the viruses Rota and Corona and Cryptosporidia parasites. Others include Salmonella, Clostridia and Coccidia. The organisms responsible for diarrhoea are commonly found in the faeces of healthy animals and can survive for long time in the pen or in the boma and especially in dirty foul standing water.
Affections of Anal Glands and Their Surgical Management
Non-reproductive sexual behavior consists of sexual activities animals participate in that do not lead to the reproduction of the species. Although procreation continues to be the primary explanation for sexual behavior in animals , recent observations on animal behavior have given alternative reasons for the engagement in sexual activities by animals. Observed non-procreative sexual activities include non-copulatory mounting without penetration, or by the female , oral sex, genital stimulation, anal stimulation, interspecies mating, and acts of affection. Lions are known to engage in sex to create bonds and interact with each other. Lions live in a social group known as a pride that consists of 2—18 females and 1—7 males.